# Glossary: harnessing science and education for biodiversity conservation

All of the following terms appear in the videos or articles for this tutorial on harnessing science and education for biodiversity conservation. Os termos estão organizados em ordem alfabética e os substantivos estão apresentados no singular, a menos que o termo no plural seja incomum.
analogy: a comparison of two things based on their being similar in some way
biodiversity: the variety of life on Earth or some specified geographic area of the planet; the diversity of life occurs at the genetic level, at the species level, at the ecosystem level, and in evolutionary lineages
biogeography: the study of how species are distributed on Earth
biologist: a scientist that studies living or formerly living organisms
calcium carbonate: CaCO start subscript, 3, end subscript; a white, insoluble solid that occurs naturally in certain types of rock such as chalk, limestone and marble; is a main component of coral and echinoderm skeletons, shells of mollusks, exoskeletons of crustaceans, pearls, and bird eggshells
captive breeding program: a program at zoos, aquaria or research facilities designed to facilitate the reproduction of wild species that are endangered or facing some type of pressure or threat; often part of a formal Species Survival Plan
conservation: in a biological context, the management of natural resources to help ensure their long-term sustainability
conservation genetics: a scientific discipline that applies genetic knowledge and methods to the conservation and restoration of biodiversity; genetic diversity is one of the important levels or types of  biodiversity
Coral Triangle: a name given to the area of tropical ocean outlined if you drew a line from the Philippines to Indonesia, to Papua New Guinea, and back to the Philippines; it is home to the greatest coral reef biodiversity in the world
education: learning knowledge or skills
ecossistema: a comunidade de diferentes espécies em uma determinada área geográfica e todas as suas interações entre si e com o ambiente físico; ecossistemas também são chamados de redes ecológicas
função ecossistêmica: os processos que ocorrem dentro de um ecossistema que estão relacionados com as interações das espécies, o fluxo de energia e o ciclo de materiais
ecosystem services: the ways in which intact ecosystems benefit humans; these services can be direct, indirect or related to aesthetic and ethical values
environment: an area or habitat; includes living and non-living components
environmental degradation: a decrease in the quality, function, or services of an ecosystem due to the depletion of resources or some other damage such as pollution
evolutionary lineage: a group of species descended from a common ancestral species; it represents a branch or series of branches on the evolutionary tree of life
expedition: a journey or voyage undertaken for a specific purpose; much of our knowledge about Earth’s biodiversity is the result of biological expeditions
extinction: the loss of a species completely and forever; happens when the last living member of a species dies
food web: the collection of all the food chains in an ecosystem that describe who eats what, and represents the flow of energy and nutrients in that ecosystem
genetic diversity: a measure of how much difference there is in the DNA of the members of a population or species
habitats: a general term for the type of environment in which an organism lives
hotspot: a general term for a place where something important is going on, such as a biodiversity hotspot that has unique and threatened species; a geologic hotspot where volcanoes are active; or a Wi-Fi hotspot where you can get online
metaphor: describing an object or event by comparing it to something that is unrelated
mollusk: the biological group of animals such as snails, clams, and squid that have a soft body without a backbone, and usually have a shell; an extremely large and diverse group including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial representatives
observation: the action or process of looking closely at something; the data or information that results from that process
organismo: um ser vivo ou algo primitivamente vivo
overharvesting: the capture and use of a natural resource such as fish or trees at a rate that is not sustainable for the long-term survival of the species
fotossíntese: o processo de capturar a energia do sol para criar moléculas orgânicas ricas em energia a partir de moléculas inorgânicas; organismos que fazem fotossíntese são chamados fotosintetizantes
população: todos os indivíduos de uma determinada espécie que vivem em uma área geográfica específica; uma espécie pode ser constituída por uma ou mais populações
remote sensing: obtaining information about environments, geographic areas or organisms through machines such as satellites or remote-controlled cameras without humans being in the area or being in contact with the organisms
research: in general terms, to study or investigate something; in scientific terms, the way science is done, to answer a specific question and with careful attention to the methods used
science: both a body of knowledge and a process for obtaining that knowledge of the natural and physical world through observation and experiment; there are many specialized subsets of science such as biology, chemistry, physics, or geology
espécie: um tipo distinto de organismo
species survival plan (SSP): a detailed protocol that sets breeding goals and other management recommendations for captive populations of endangered or threatened species; designed to maintain maximum genetic diversity for the species; frequently involves national and international collaborations among zoos, aquaria and research facilities
simbiose: um relacionamento de longo prazo ou a interação entre indivíduos de duas espécies diferentes; a relação simbiótica pode ter um impacto positivo, negativo ou neutro sobre os participantes